SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems. SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a database, or retrieve data from a database.
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system, or RDBMS, that supports a wide variety of transaction processing, business intelligence and analytics applications in corporate IT environments. It's one of the three market-leading database technologies, along with Oracle Database and IBM's DB2.The original SQL Server code was developed in the 1980s by the former Sybase Inc., which is now owned by SAP. Sybase initially built the software to run on Unix systems and minicomputer platforms. It, Microsoft and Ashton-Tate Corp., then the leading vendor of PC databases, teamed up to produce the first version of what became Microsoft SQL Server, designed for the OS/2 operating system and released in 1989.
SQL Server is Microsoft's relational database management system (RDBMS). It is a full-featured database primarily designed to compete against competitors Oracle Database (DB) and MySQL. Like all major RBDMS, SQL Server supports ANSI SQL, the standard SQL language. However, SQL Server also contains T-SQL, its own SQL implemention. SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) (previously known as Enterprise Manager) is SQL Server's main interface tool, and it supports 32-bit and 64-bit environments.
The reason it is installed along with Visual Studio is because SQL Server is a database system for storing data, and many developers these days are writing applications that work with databases, so the developer often needs a SQL Server installed so that he has a database system to develop and test against.
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